Reuters 03 April 2008
Rap music has increasingly glamorised the use of illegal drugs, portraying marijuana, crack and cocaine as symbols of wealth and status, according to a new study by the journal Addiction Research & Theory.
The report found that rap artists had moved away from the lyrics of the early days of the genre when they often warned against the dangers of substance abuse. “This study showed that in fact much early rap music either did not talk about drugs at all, or when it did had anti-drug messages,” said Denise Herd, of the University of California at Berkeley, who headed the research team. “So intrinsically rap music is not necessarily associated with these themes,” she added.
After sampling 341 lyrics from rap music’s most popular hits between 1979 and 1997, the researchers found references to drugs had increased six-fold over that period. Of the 38 most popular songs between 1979 and 1984, only four contained drug references.
But by the late 1980s the incidence had increased to 19 per cent, and after 1993 nearly 70 per cent of rap songs mentioned drug use. Lyrics describing drug use have not only became more frequent but the context changed from concern about the devastation of drugs to a more positive portrayal.