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Vaping basics: a guide for parents and others

Graves Associates 14 Ocotber 2019
Family First Comment: Superb Q&A from Keith Graves
• how vaporisers work
• what drugs can be vaped
• how to keep your kids from vaping

With national attention focused on vaping and the fatal lung diseases that are being associated with them, let’s take at look at what vapes do and what they don’t do.

How vaporizers work
When cannabis is heated to between 300-450 degrees Fahrenheit, cannabinoids like THC (and others) take flight, volatilizing into tiny airborne droplets that form vapor that looks like smoke. Vaporizers accomplish this by using a battery powered heating element that cooks the cannabis oil or plant material. The oil is typically mixed with a substance like propylene glycol to decrease viscosity.

Vaporizers that can be used to smoke plant material differ from traditional vaporizers, which use convection (hot air) rather than combustion (heating element) to heat the plant material to the desired temperature. The purpose is to cause the THC and other cannabinoids to vaporize rather than burning the plant material. Now that we know how they work, let’s have a look at the components of a vaping device.

The tank
The tank typically holds the oil or other material and can be refilled, or a cartridge can be replaced if it’s intended for single use. Tanks are typically combined with the atomizer as a single unit. Tanks can be made of glass, polycarbonate plastic, or even stainless steel.

Atomizer
The device which actually heats the material is called the atomizer. It consists of a metal coil that comes into contact with the material, causing the droplets or “vapor” to form.

Sensors and software
Some vape pens turn on when the user inhales while others use a push button to initiate heating. They both require a sensor to determine when the user is inhaling. Embedded software controls temperature and other functions of the pen.

The battery
Vaporizers must provide enough current to power a tiny heater that reaches 400 degrees in seconds. Vaporizers use lithium-ion batteries that have high energy density, similar to your cellular phone. They are rechargeable and can come in various sizes to accommodate a multitude of work loads.

Modern day vaporizers are marketed as “3-in-1” kits. They are designed to vaporize dry plant material, E-Liquid, or wax. A consumer can buy one for as little at 10 dollars, or as much as 60 dollars which includes accessories like chargers, cases, and cleaners.

Users claim vape pens are a more healthy alternative to smoking thinking that vaporizers do not actually burn the plant material. They believe this eliminates the toxic substances that are usually found in tobacco or cannabis smoke, even though the products includes a number of substances, including THC, nicotine, synthetic cannabinoids or a combination of these. Recent events, however, have linked vaporizers to severe lung disease. As of October 2019 The Denver Post has reported over 1000 vaping related injuries and 18 deaths nationally.

What drugs can be vaped?
Most common drugs can be vaped. However, vaping is not an efficient method for drug users to vape certain drugs. In the photo below, you can see a vape tank that contains vape liquid mixed with methamphetamine. Although there are cases of people vaping methamphetamine, it is rare and inefficient. Another example is heroin. Heroin could be vaped, but a user is not going to do this. The vaporizer will use up too much of the heroin to be an efficient high. Even though it is not common, you should still be aware of it. Cannabis products are very popular to vape and it is these products that are causing the most health emergencies.

How to keep your kids from vaping
You need to talk to your kids about vaping just like you would about abstaining from cigarettes, marijuana and other drugs. If you want to know more about talking to your children about these subjects, I have written an article on it and I have a webinar online that you can view.
https://gravesassociates.com/vaping-basics-a-guide-for-parents-and-others/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Oct+16+2019+DIB
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A Young Man Nearly Lost His Life to Vaping

New York Times 15 October 2019
Family First Comment: Vaping is odorless and easy to hide, and Mr. Rodriguez slipped into doing it constantly, inhaling enormous amounts of THC and craving more. He decided to talk about it in the hope that his story might be a warning to other people under the false impression that vaping is safe. “I want people to stay as far away as they can from vapes, especially THC vapes,” he said.

He thought vaping THC would be safer than smoking marijuana, but the fumes shut down his lungs.

Gregory Rodriguez thought he had the flu when he went to the emergency room on Sept. 18, feeling feverish, nauseated and short of breath.

He woke up four days later in a different hospital, with a tube down his throat connecting him to a ventilator, and two more tubes in his neck and groin, running his blood through a device that pumped in oxygen and took out carbon dioxide. The machines were doing the job of his lungs, which had stopped working.

“I was basically on the verge of death,” he said.

Mr. Rodriguez, 22, a college student, is one of the nearly 1,300 people in the United States who have become seriously ill because of vaping. Like him, about 70 percent are young men. And also like him, many vaped THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

Vaping is odorless and easy to hide, and Mr. Rodriguez slipped into doing it constantly, inhaling enormous amounts of THC and craving more. He decided to talk about it in the hope that his story might be a warning to other people under the false impression that vaping is safe.

“I want people to stay as far away as they can from vapes, especially THC vapes,” he said.

Lung illnesses linked to vaping were first recognized during the summer. The exact cause is still unknown. Toxic chemicals released from vaping fluids, or from the battery-powered vaping devices themselves, are among the suspects.
READ MORE: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/15/health/vaping-thc-illness.html

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Men’s marijuana use increases miscarriage risk for women, new research finds

ABC News 14 October 2019
Family First Comment: More reasons to avoid drugs…
“When men smoke marijuana once a week or more, their partners are twice as likely to experience a miscarriage when pregnant, according to Boston University researchers who examined over 1,400 couples before they got pregnant… Smoking marijuana may negatively affect sperm quality and the change in sperm quality may drive the increased occurrence of miscarriage.”

New research is highlighting the role men play in infertility and miscarriage.

When men smoke marijuana once a week or more, their partners are twice as likely to experience a miscarriage when pregnant, according to Boston University researchers who examined over 1,400 couples before they got pregnant.

The researches asked the couples about marijuana usage over the past two months and then followed them as they got pregnant and, in some cases, miscarried.

The majority of men in the study did not smoke marijuana, with only 8% smoking once a week or more. Nearly 18% of the couples in the study reported a miscarriage.

Smoking, but less frequently than once a week, did not have an association with miscarriage rate, according to the research.

One reason for the increased risk of miscarriage with male marijuana use, according to researchers, is that smoking marijuana may negatively affect sperm quality and the change in sperm quality may drive the increased occurrence of miscarriage.
READ MORE: https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Wellness/mens-marijuana-increases-miscarriage-risk-women-research-finds/story?id=66257753
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AUDIO: Drug rehabilitation expert slams festival pill testing proposal

A drug rehabilitation expert says implementing pill testing at festivals is ludicrous.

Four people were hospitalised after taking MDMA at Auckland’s Listen In concert on Friday night.

Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern is backing festival pill testing, but National and New Zealand First oppose it.

Shalom House CEO Peter Lyndon-James told Mike Hosking it will encourage more people to engage in pill taking, and potentially further drug consumption.

https://www.newstalkzb.co.nz/on-air/mike-hosking-breakfast/audio/peter-lyndon-james-drug-rehabilitation-expert-slams-festival-pill-testing-proposal/

Cannabis use increases risk of psychotic cases

The Australian 7 October 2019
Family First CommentThe evidence is building, yet even Australian politicians want to put their head in the sand…
The review of medical literature also examined Australian research, which concluded that regular cannabis users doubled their risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms — including schizophrenia — and were at an increased risk of screening positively for psychosis. “The evidence base regarding adverse health effects linked to cannabis use has broadened considerably since the gradual decriminalisation, and in some cases legalisation, of the substance in certain international jurisdictions,” the department says. “Adverse health outcomes as a result of regular cannabis use are not limited to mental health and psychotic symptoms.”

Regular use of cannabis doubles the risk of psychotic symptoms ¬including schizophrenia and is closely associated with anxiety disorders, depression and -psychosis, says official advice to the Morrison government triggered by the passage of new laws in the ACT.

The briefing paper prepared for Health Minister Greg Hunt reveals extensive links between cannabis use and adverse mental health affects, which have “broadened considerably” as marijuana is decriminalised.

In the three-page brief obtained by The Weekend Australian, the Health Department lists five “key issues” or research findings to consider after the ACT Legislative Assembly passed a ¬private member’s bill allowing adults to possess 50gm of cannabis and grow two plants. Individual households can have up to four plants.

The department notes there has been a sizeable body of work analysing the adverse physio¬logical and mental health effects of recreational cannabis use, des¬pite marijuana being decriminalised only in a small ¬number of jurisdictions.

It points to research from the US state of Colorado that found daily or near-daily cannabis use was associated with the development of a psychotic disorder.

The review of medical literature also examined Australian research, which concluded that regular cannabis users doubled their risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms — including schizophrenia — and were at an increased risk of screening positively for psychosis.

“The evidence base regarding adverse health effects linked to cannabis use has broadened considerably since the gradual decriminalisation, and in some cases legalisation, of the substance in certain international jurisdictions,” the department says.

“Adverse health outcomes as a result of regular cannabis use are not limited to mental health and psychotic symptoms.”

The department advised that a 2018 Canadian Medical Association Journal report found an overwhelming volume of evidence outlining the biological harm of cannabis use, including brain changes, adverse cognitive outcomes, negative pregnancy outcomes and testicular cancer.

The briefing also says a psycho¬active component in cannabis called tetrahydrocannabinol, the main chemical responsible for the drug’s psychological effects, increased by almost 30 per cent throughout the late 1990s and early 2000s.

This was linked to exacerbated symptoms of anxiety, depression and psychotic symptoms in “naive” users and increased psychotic symptoms and dependence in “experienced” users.

In Colorado, the first US state to legalise marijuana, emergency department visits due to cannabis increased slightly while the acute effects of THC — including hallucinations, paranoia and delusional beliefs — markedly increased with higher doses.

Government sources said the departmental advice was a “devastating confirmation” of the health and mental health effects of recreational cannabis and urged ACT Chief Minister Andrew Barr to explain what health advice he received before supporting the legislation.

The federal government also wanted to know whether the territory government was aware of any studies that contradicted the broad global evidence of real and significant mental health effects from cannabis use.

Mr Hunt said he was “deeply concerned about the very real risks cannabis can pose to physical health and, in particular, to mental health”. “This is why cannabis is a highly regulated drug,” he said. “Legalising recreational cannabis is dangerous and medically irresponsible.”
https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/politics/cannabis-use-increases-risk-of-psychotic-cases/news-story/c95979450145c9a346e56c9a3192a7b0  (behind paywall)

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How the Drug Foundation has slowly shifted the goalposts (as per The Plan)…

We’ve always argued that the real agenda in the drug debate is a global commodity market for all drugs – i.e. creating a drug-friendly culture. And that the strategy has been well known – first medicinal, then decriminalisation, then legalisation, then legalise all drugs. This has been the strategy of groups like NORML and the Drug Policy Alliance since day one

“The key to it [legalising marijuana for recreational use] is to have 100s of thousands of people using it ‘medically’ under medical supervision, the whole scam is going to be blown. Once there is medical access and we do what we continually have to do, and we will, then we will get full legalisation.”

Richard Cowen, former Director of NORML (National Organisation for Reform of Marijuana Laws), 1993

“The best answer is to move slowly but firmly to dismantle the edifice of enforcement. Start with the possession and sale of cannabis and amphetamines, and experiment with different strategies. Move on to hard drugs, sold through licensed outlets.”

Ethan Nadelmann – Drug Policy Alliance (DPA) The Economist (July 26, 2001)

This has now been taken up by the Global Commission on Drug Policy – of which former PM Helen Clark is a member. It has a flawed approach to drug use in our society, and is more focused on the rights of individuals to live in a drug-friendly society than it is in the welfare, safety and health of the community. The GCDP wants to legalise all drug use, and wants policies based on ‘human rights’ and which remove the ‘stigmatisation’ and ‘marginalisation’ of people who use drugs.

If you want to see the gradual progression of this master plan, look no further than the messaging of the Drug Policy Alliance’s ally in New Zealand – the taxpayer-funded Drug Foundation.

Here’s the timeline:

FIRST IT WAS MEDICINAL ONLY 2006

“Let’s be clear on this,” said Mr Bell. “This is not a backdoor for decriminalisation of cannabis, these are entirely separate issues. We are only interested in providing a compassionate form of pain relief for thousands of New Zealanders.”

Drug Foundation backs medical cannabisDrug Foundation Media Release (2006)

AND NO TO DECRIMINALISATION / LEGALISATION 2009 – 2011

“Mr Bell dismissed as ridiculous a newspaper report that the symposium has a secret agenda of pushing for drug legalisation… We’re quite open about our agenda which is to promote health-based drug policy and law, and not to create a Trojan Horse for decriminalisation.”

Drug policy symposium an unprecedented eventDrug Foundation Media Release (2009)

“The Government cannot shy away from this report. It is not a manifesto for the decriminalisation or legalisation of drugs, as some might suggest. Nor does it accept that the status quo should be maintained.” (Responding to the Law Commission’s recommendations for reforming the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975)

Review drags drug law into 21st Century – Drug Foundation Media Release (2011)

THEN IT WAS YES TO DECRIMINALISATION 2013

Decriminalisation does not mean a free-for-all and it does not mean that we’re soft on drugs, it means that we’re facing up to the problem and tackling it head on… A health focus has been proven to work overseas. Thirty countries have decriminalised, 17 US states have decriminalised…” Mr Bell said the debate around cannabis, decriminalisation and its health effects, needed to continue.

NZ ready for healthy drug law – Drug Foundation Media Release (2013)

Do you support decriminalisation of the possession of a small amount of cannabis, or do you feel the law should stay as it is? [Note: no questions around legalisation]

Drug Foundation Survey – Nov 2013

(Interestingly, the media statement referenced above says that only 46.4% of New Zealanders aged 16–64 have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime – similar to NZIER research. All the pro-drug groups now keep quoting 80%, which seems to suit their narrative better. Wonder why? (rhetorical question)

AND NOW, YES TO LEGALISATION (& DECRIMINALISE ALL OTHER DRUGS) 2017 – 2019

Our model drug law proposes:
Removing criminal penalties for the possession, use and social supply of all drugs
Developing a strictly regulated cannabis market

Drug Foundation – July 2017

This of course includes advising drug users (including students) how to use meth ‘discreetly’ and ‘safely’ and synthetic cannabis, and drug testing (not of employees to ensure they’re not a health and safety risk at work, but for party goers so they can take drugs at musical festivals.)

Ironically, in 2011, the Drug Foundation said in their media release that they wanted:

– introduction of a Police cautioning scheme for low level offending, such as simple possession, combined with diversion to health information and addiction treatment services

– balancing law enforcement and health activities, requiring greater investment into harm prevention, education, and addiction treatment services.

…but not decriminalisation or legalisation. Exactly what we have been asking for!

You have been warned. The writing is on the wall. It’s all part of a global plan to normalise drugs.

Don’t buy it.

Vote NO.

My experience of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS)

Medical News Today 19 September 2019
Family First Comment: Yet CHS is a very real condition, and while it may only affect a small percentage of people, it can be deadly. It is my mission to raise awareness of CHS in the hope that others do not have to endure the same fate as Brian.

There is a new condition that is affecting marijuana users at a growing rate, and it’s called cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS).

CHS causes abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, and the vomiting can result in dehydration.

This dehydration can lead to a type of kidney failure that experts refer to as cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure, and in severe cases, it can even result in death. The reason why I know so much about this is that it happened to my son.

Brian’s legacy
At this point, I started my journey into CHS awareness. I joined a CHS Facebook group and created CHS Awareness in Brian’s memory. I contacted the news channel RTV6 Indianapolis and was interviewed on the station.

Through the creation of the Facebook page and the news coverage that I received, I have been able to reach many people. I have also heard stories of others who had CHS symptoms.

The emotional and physical toll of CHS has been devastating to some, as many sufferers were misdiagnosed and made many visits to the emergency room as a result. The financial and emotional effects of this are very stressful.

Marijuana has many benefits for those who don’t have CHS. Some people use it in low dosages to reduce depression, social anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and it can help relieve nausea and vomiting that occur due to chemotherapy. It may calm the muscle spasms that multiple sclerosis can cause, and some claim that it reduces seizures.

There is also a belief that marijuana may help in opioid addiction recovery, and researchers are publishing new studies all the time, highlighting many other potential benefits.

Yet CHS is a very real condition, and while it may only affect a small percentage of people, it can be deadly. It is my mission to raise awareness of CHS in the hope that others do not have to endure the same fate as Brian.

Losing Brian has been the most traumatic event in our lives. He was such a positive person and always gave his friends good advice. He was a loving son whom I never thought I would have, and he was a best friend to his sisters.

I want Brian’s death not to be in vain, and I hope that he can continue to make an impact even in death.
READ MORE: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326357.php

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Police minister’s plan to legalise pill testing at summer festivals derailed as NZ First says it encourages drug use

TVNZ One News 29 September 2019
Family First Comment: Well said, NZ First 🎉😄
NZ First law and order spokesperson Darroch Ball said drug testing could legitimise and encourage drug use. “We’re acting at the wrong end here. We’re being very reactionary if we think it’s okay to start saving lives or to start protecting people after the drug has been taken or after it’s been purchased,” 

Drug testing at music festivals will not be legal in time for the summer season, with Police Minister Stuart Nash struggling to get backing from New Zealand First.

Mr Nash said in January the move would save lives and hospitalisations, but has now said his plan to get it legalised has failed.

Festival owners are currently reluctant to openly back the drug testing as it is still illegal, but some events have the testing on-site.

“It is something I’m passionate about – I just can’t get it across the line,” Mr Nash said.

“It doesn’t mean I stop. It just means that we probably are not going to get it in place legally for this coming festival season.”

Drug testers are particularly worried about high-dose MDMA pills this summer, which has already led to deaths overseas.

NZ First law and order spokesperson Darroch Ball said drug testing could legitimise and encourage drug use.

“We’re acting at the wrong end here. We’re being very reactionary if we think it’s okay to start saving lives or to start protecting people after the drug has been taken or after it’s been purchased,” he said.
READ MORE: https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/police-ministers-plan-legalise-pill-testing-summer-festivals-derailed-nz-first-says-encourages-drug-use

NZ First block drug checking: ‘Stick to things that are safe’
Radio NZ News 1 October 2019
Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters says a proposal to legalise drug checks at music festivals would send the wrong message about drug use, which he believes is a “thoroughly bad idea” and should not be condoned.

New Zealand First put the brakes on the Labour and Green-supported plan, which would have allowed pill testing services at events this summer.

“Taking pills at festivals is a thoroughly bad idea,” Mr Peters said.

“Now it’s been suggested that we should provide all the mechanisms for people to take a whole lot of pills down there to find whether pill taking is safe or not.

“We at New Zealand First say it’s not safe, don’t do it. If you want to live, then stick to things that are safe,” he said.

“I think it’s better to tell people that drugs and drug experimentation is an awfully risky and dangerous thing to do.”
READ MORE: https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/400088/nz-first-block-drug-checking-stick-to-things-that-are-safe

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Pill testing is not the answer to drug deaths at music festivals

MercatorNet 25 September 2019
Family First Comment: Great commentary
“To really liberate adolescents and young adults from the dark realities of the festival narcotics culture, we need to remind them that they are not just victims of circumstance, nor are they inert actors within a broader culture of psychedelic escapism. They are the masters of their own lives, and they have a choice when it comes to drugs.”

Many Australians think that pill-testing will stop drug-related deaths at music festivals. The reality is that there’s no magic solution to stop narcotics abuse in our society. On the contrary, pill testing risks creating a culture of learned helplessness among post-Millennials, whereby adolescents and young adults believe that they are powerless to resist peer pressure and the pernicious overtures of a toxic festival drug culture. The working assumption of the Australian pill testing lobby is that it is inevitable that young people will inevitably consume drugs at rave concerts and alternative music festivals, and that the best approach is one of harm minimisation…..

….. While pro-drug politicians like Australian Greens leader Richard Di Natale are keen to describe “drug use as a health issue”, the reality is that teens and adolescents who consume drugs at festivals are typically not languishing in throes of drug addiction. Rather, these mature adolescents and young adults — let’s drop the pretense of childish naiveté — are casual, recreational drug users, who live an otherwise normal life.

Joseph Pham — who died after an MDMA overdose at Defqon.1 in Sydney last September — was a 23-year-old student at the Australian Catholic University whose interests included online games and Taekwondo. Diana Nguyen, 21, who died after consuming MDMA the same event, was a “vibrant, loving young woman” who was engaged to a boy she had known since she was 14. 

Furthermore, young people know the risks that they take when consuming illicit substances. And sadly, they still choose to proceed with what is manifestly destructive behaviour. Either that, or education in schools and community institutions is so woefully inadequate that teenagers can’t tell the difference between the risks involved in consuming over-the-counter paracetamol and the potentially deadly consequences of popping ecstasy pills in the middle of sweaty mosh-pit.

Granted, pill testing helps festival-goers to identify whether the drugs they have purchased are contaminated. But we are still left with the problem of festival-goers routinely consuming hard drugs — and all with the imprimatur of health authorities, should we proceed with state-sanctioned pill testing at music festivals.

If we completely medicalise the drug problem, we end up with a culture in which casual drug users are immune from any moral sanction whatsoever — even self-sanction when they reflect on their own behaviours and their responsibility for their actions.

It would also be naive at best to ignore the myriad of harmful effects of casual drug use and focus only on the problem of drug-related deaths at high-profile music events. Hard drugs like ecstasy and LSD, for example, are closely linked to a host of mental disorders, including psychosis, heightened anxiety, paranoia and severe depression.

According to 2016 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare data, 37 percent of people 18 or over who had used meth/amphetamines in the past 12 months experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress. It would be hypocritical for state governments to seek to fight the scourge of mental illness while capitulating to pressure from the pill-testing lobby.

Amidst all the political rhetoric (bordering on moral panic), we would do well to reflect on the broader cultural implications of the way in which we frame the issue of recreational drug consumption in our society. Pill testing sends a message to young people that they are victims of their own drug culture, and that they cannot be expected to resist the pressure to consume drugs.

Rather than fuelling a victim culture among the post-Millennial generation, we need effective drug-education programs. These programs should not only focus on risks, but should also remind young people that they are the authors of their own lives, that they are respectable citizens and that they can resist (or exit) the bacchanalian culture surrounding contemporary music festivals.

To really liberate adolescents and young adults from the dark realities of the festival narcotics culture, we need to remind them that they are not just victims of circumstance, nor are they inert actors within a broader culture of psychedelic escapism. They are the masters of their own lives, and they have a choice when it comes to drugs.

Xavier Symons is a research associate at the Institute for Ethics & Society, University of Notre Dame.
https://www.mercatornet.com/features/view/pill-testing-is-not-the-answer-to-drug-deaths-at-music-festivals/22895

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Medical cannabis product approved for epilepsy

BBC News 23 September 2019
Family First Comment: Researched as effective and safe. Not smoked. Not grown at home.
The way medicine should be.

The EU has approved for the first time the use of a medicinal cannabis product aimed at patients with two rare, but severe, forms of childhood epilepsy.

Doctors can prescribe Epidyolex – an oral solution of cannabidiol, which comes from the cannabis plant – if they think it will help sufferers.

It has been approved for use in the UK and other European countries, but the NHS does not currently recommend it.

But some parents want alternatives that contain a component not in this drug.

Last month, the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence made an initial decision not to recommend prescribing Epidyolex, due to lack of evidence of long-term effectiveness.

Final guidance is due later this year.

What is Epidyolex?
The drug does not contain any of the psycho-active component of cannabis, a compound called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Some parents, who have travelled to the Netherlands to buy cannabis medicines, feel the treatment will not help many children because it does not contain THC, which they argue has helped their children.

Epidyolex has been approved as a treatment option for children as young as two with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome – difficult-to-treat conditions that can cause multiple seizures a day.

The medication, developed by GW Pharmaceuticals, will be used in combination with another epilepsy medication called clobazam.
READ MORE: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-49795260

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